Wow so after messing around with my image for two days now I finally figured out what was causing the issue. Googles Image Enhancement. I thought I had already fixed this problem by turning off image enhancement on Picasa but apparently you also have to turn it off on Google + or it still persists.
The weirdest thing was that Image Enhancement was also messing with my ICC profile causing the image to look like the middle one on my (this) computer, but like the original on most other machines. This was not acceptable. Turning ICC off seemed to somewhat fix the problem on my machine (right image)
but turned other images into garbage on other machines (bottom middle image).
Neither of these was a good solution since it makes the image look horrible on one or the other computer. I only just found out that there is a second option for turning off Image Enhancement in Google+ and both that and the Picasa Image Enhancement need to be disabled for the image to show up properly with ICC ON.
Now the images are showing up correctly. Only problem is that all of these bugs in the images are added on upload. So I now need to go back possibly dozens of posts and re-upload every image to make sure none of these discolorations or ICC issues appear on any machine. So that's my next couple of days.
Update: Apparently the Image Enhance effect disappeared from all images over night, which is good. Some of them seem to now be a bit lighter and higher contrast than the originals but the difference is minimal on most. I guess that's just bloggers default handling of images though.